Surname - YDNA Haplogroup-I1 Z140,Z141 > F2642 > FGC2490/Y1854 > FGC2491/Y1884/S2158
> FGC2499/Y2967+ Branch
North of England
Ongoing research by William Hartley, Administrator of the Haplo-I1-M253; I1-Z58; I1-Z140,Z141; I1-F2642; and Hartley DNA Projects.
HARTLEY test result is unique. It shows YDNA [male-to-male] belonging to the
YDNA Haplogroup-I1 Z140,Z141 > F2642 > FGC2490/Y1854 > FGC2491/Y1884/S2158
> FGC2499/Y2967+ Branch.
Close male genetic kin are in the main, currently living in or from the North of England, the place that my paper research goes back to, in the mid to late 18thC.
I estimate the two most recent common paternal line ancestors of these HARTLEYs [the MRCAs] were:
 born about 2,500BP [Before Present], being Iron Age Anglo-Danish-Swedish Angles who were controlling the North [Northumbria], East [Southumbria and East Anglia] and Midlands [Mercia] of England, surnames including de HARCLA, ERIKSSON, ERSSON, KELDORF, NIELSEN, OLOFSSON
and  born about 800BP, approx. 1200 AD, in the North of England, Yorkshire and Lancashire. Including HARTLEY, PRATT - English: nickname for a clever trickster, from Old English prætt ‘trick’, ‘tricky’, ‘cunning’ [which is found in use as a byname in the 11th century]. This surname is quite common in southeastern Ireland..
... I estimate the dark red and red areas on this map [centred on what-was 'Doggerland'. now under the North Sea] indicate likely origins of YDNA I1-M253 > Z140 > F2642 and downstream branches that include my Hartley line.
... by another research method, the dark blue and blue areas of this map indicate likely origins of YDNA I1-M253 > Z140 > F2642 and downstream branches that include my Hartley line. I believe my de Harcla line predated Harclay, Harley and Hartley, and was already established in Kent during the Iron Age. The name Hartley is found in Norman records so must pre-date the common introduction of surnames. I believe the surname evolved over time, for this specific YDNA Hartley line only, from >10thC-13thC de Harcla > 14thC-15thC Harclay > 16thC-present day Hartley and Harley
Hartley is the present day form found in most of England [ie 'Hart' found in geographical locations that include 'Hartley', and 'Hert', as in Hertfordshire]
Harley is the form found in Herefordshire [ie 'Here', as in Herefordshire]
[Work in Progress - William Hartley - 2018]
Earlier research by William Hartley [updated 2014]:
That MRCA was likely English-Danish-Swedish, of an Angle tribe, possibly a King or Tribal Chief. He was descended from a small male lineage, a marginal tribe descended from indigenous North European Natives [Haplogroup I and Haplogroup I1] that included just half-a-dozen or so males, who lived 24,000 through to 4,500 years ago.
The HARTLEYs with Haplo-I1 Z140,Z141 DNA would have had close links with Scandinavia and the North Coast of Germany, the Baltic and the Low Countries. They would have traded food and goods, and would have exchanged culture, ideas, beliefs and language. Their families would have been inter-connected by cross-marriages.
They had close links with Angles, and later Normans, particularly in Kent and the South East of England, East Anglia, North East England, Yorkshire, and Lancashire and Cumbria in the North West of England.
the mid-18thC they had settled near Blackburn-Darwen, at the foot of the
Pendle Hills, Lancashire, at the dawn of the industrial revolution. Where
the HARTLEYs were living during the 'missing' 2,300 years [2,500BP to mid-18thC]
is not possible to determine, though, in time, further research of DNA and paper
records may solve the mystery.
In 1954, the ancient remains of an Icelander was found in N.Iceland. Recent analysis discovered he had Hg-I1-M253>Z140>F2642+ Branch YDNA. His ancestors were William Hartley’s Hartley family ancestors. Although the Icelander lived c.870-930 AD and was born in Iceland, scientists think it likely his ancestors were English [re: Isotopic Tests]. More research is continuing on this important find.
The present-day location of the Haplo-I1 Z140,Z141+ F2642+ S2158+ subclade in the North of England has links with the historical location of Angles [the English], Northmen known as the Danes, [aka Danish Vikings] and Anglo-French Normans.
The closest present day DNA matches of males with the same Z140 YDNA confirm the geographical area of the British Isles, Norway, Sweden, Finland and North Germany. [map to be updated]. None of the other matches has the surname HARTLEY. [Locations shown on map above; FINLAND: Pedersöre Vaasa, Oulu and Tampere SWEDEN: Karlskrona, Vastmanland, Kopparberg, Värmland and Vasttarna NORWAY: Nordland and Telemark RUSSIA: St Petersburg [close to Finland] GERMANY: Rugen. SCOTLAND: Stirlingshire. ENGLAND: Leeds, Yorkshire and Blackburn, Lancashire, plus a couple in the USA who likely came from England
blue on the map, Haplogroup I1 is native to, and is found mostly in the
British Isles, Low Countries, Normandy, Scandinavia and Northern Baltic Germany, where in places, it can represent
over 50% of the population. [map to be updated]. The greatest
density of I1 can be found in two distinct areas; to the North of Europe, in
the British Isles, Low Countries, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland,
and Baltic Germany; and to the South, at Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and
Sardinia as Haplogroup I2.
[frequency of 50% in Satakunta, Finland; 40% in Western Finland; 35% in South West Sweden [Gotland] and Southern Norway; gradually decreasing in Denmark and the North German Baltic.
I1 is the most common haplogroup in nearly all regions of Sweden. Within this haplogroup, the regions did not show any deviation among themselves except for the I1 haplotypes found in Värmland. This region differed significantly from two Swedish regions and both the Saami and Österbotten I1 lineages. No other Swedish region differed from the Saami or the Österbotten samples]
Haplogroup-I1 is found in all places associated with the ancient English-Germanic tribes and the Vikings. During the Nordic Stone Age, pre-I1 and I1 people were part of the successive Hamburg culture [15,500-13,000BP] Ahrensburg culture [13,000-11,500 BP], Maglemosian culture [11,500–8,000BP], Kongemose culture [ca. 8,000–7,200BP], Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture [7,200-5,950BP], pre-Bronze Age Funnelbeaker culture [6000-4700BP]; all cultures of Reindeer Hunters. Their settlements were in proximity to the rim of the Ice, and the landscape was tundra with bushy arctic white birch and rowan. The most important prey was the wild reindeer, and the hunters ranged areas as large as 100,000 km2 [40,000 sq miles]. The Corded Ware period [5200-3800BP] marks the arrival of the Indo-European R1a people from the Ukrainian steppes.
I1 is identified by at least 15 unique mutations, which indicates that this lineage has been isolated for a long period of time, or experienced a serious population bottleneck. The first mutation that gives rise to subclade Haplo-I1 appeared 10,000-8,000BP, somewhere in the far northern part of Europe, possibly England, possibly a King or Tribal Chief. His descendants are primarily found among the English-Germanic populations of Northern Europe and the bordering Uralic and Celtic populations. They were nomadic hunter-gathers and fishermen, later settled farmers, growing wheat and barley and keeping sheep, goats, pigs and cattle; they hunted Reindeer and Deer in forests and wetlands and they domesticated the wolf. Remains of some of them have been found on the Island of Rügen, home of the Mother Earth Goddess, HERTHA. The Nordic Bronze Age [also Northern Bronze Age] is the name given by Oscar Montelius to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, 3,700-2,500BP, with sites that reached as far east as Estonia. I1 is the origin of the gene allowing adults of Northern European descent to digest lactose. The Mother Earth Goddess HERTHA was widely worshipped by them [see Nerthus/Heorotha/Hertha - Name Page]. Evidence of the veneration of a Mother Goddess, representing the Earth, survived among the Angles of Denmark and the English. The megalithic structures [8,000-3,200BP] of Europe [like Stonehenge] were likely built in part by I1 people. Bronze Age rock carvings contain some of the earliest depictions of well known Gods from later Norse religion. A common figure in these rock carvings is that of a male figure carrying what appears to be an axe or hammer; most likely this represents Thor. Other male figures are shown holding a spear, representing Odin or Týr, both gods are associated with this weapon. A figure holding a bow is probably Ullr. It is thought these later male Gods became more popular in later Norse religion, than the earlier female Mother Goddess, HERTHA.
Haplogroup I arose in Europe, and is almost non-existent outside of Europe. [map to be updated] It originated around 24,000BP, at the start of the Last Great Ice Age, and is indigenous Native European DNA [see Multiregional theory below]; Native Europeans were independent of Africa over many hundreds of thousands of years, bred with co-native cousins 'Homo Neanderthalensis' [aka Neanderthal Man], and have distinct traits such as light hair and eye colour, as shown in the following maps:
Haplogroup I descended from more ancient indigenous Native Europeans like Cro-Magnon, Neanderthal, Heidelberg and Homo antecessor.
Cro-Magnon: ancestral to the current population of Europe and lived as far back as 35,000BP. They had the same high forehead, upright posture and slender skeleton as modern humans but were more robust and had a slightly larger cranial capacity. Cro-Magnon's co-existed with and absorbed the older Neanderthals.
Homo Neanderthalansis: earlier European dating back between 600,000 and 25,000BP. They hunted Bison, Deer, Gazelles and wild Horses that flourished in Europe, and existed until long after the Last Great Ice Age. They had limbs that were shorter and stockier than those of modern Europeans. 'Neanderthal Man' bred with modern Europeans, possibly with Cro Magnon. Modern Europeans share between 2% and 9% of Neanderthal DNA.
Heidelberg: a native European, they existed before Neanderthals, between 800,000 and 100,000BP. Like Cro-Magnon, Heidelberg Man had a larger cranial capacity than modern Europeans; they were tall, 1.8 m [6 foot] on average, and more muscular. They hunted wild Deer, Elephants, Rhinoceroses and Horses, built shelters, and had more advanced tools such as spears and axes; they built boats and were able to travel across open seas to inhabit islands such as Crete. They had an advanced form of behavior, buried their dead, offered gifts and had a primitive form of language. Heidelberg Man inhabited further north as they could withstand much colder climates. They mastered fire and built hearths, to keep warm, cook and ward off preditors.
Homo antecessor: dating from 1.2 million to 800,000BP, they are the earliest known indigenous Native Europeans, a direct ancestor of Haplogroup I1 Europeans, Cro-Magnon, Neanderthal and Heidelberg Man. They were up to 1.8m [6 foot] tall and of similar build to Heidelberg Man but had a smaller cranial capacity. Homo antecessor flint artifacts have been found as widespread as Northern Spain and Norfolk in England. There were no caves in Norfolk so primitive huts would have been constructed for shelter. Hunting would have included Deer, Giant Elk, Horses and Mammoths. Other wildlife at that time included Elephants, Rhinos, Sabre-toothed Cats and Hyenas.
Fossil and genomic data supports the hypothesis of a Multiregional origin of modern humans. The gene flow and sexual reproduction between modern and ancestral human population has not been ruled out; the 'Out of Africa' theory is not a consensus view and many see it as flawed. Clearly, modern humans show evidence of ancient indigenous Native Europeans' traits, from Cro-Magnon, Neanderthal, Heidelberg and Homo antecessor.
Present-day geographical locations of people with matches to my Haplo-I1 Z140 STR DYS19=16
FINLAND: Pedersöre Vaasa, Oulu and Tampere
SWEDEN: Karlskrona, Vastmanland, Kopparberg, Värmland and Vasttarna
NORWAY: Nordland and Telemark
RUSSIA: St Petersburg [close to border with Finland]
GERMANY: Rugen [likely a Norse settler]
OF ENGLAND: in particular Yorkshire and Lancashire
Famous People tested, results showing YDNA Haplogroup I1-M253 include:
Birger JARL aka Birger MAGNUSSON [c. 1210 – 21 October 1266] [updated Dec 2011] New DNA currently testing: Birger is to be confirmed]
traditionally attributed to have founded the Swedish capital, Stockholm, around 1250, and the consolidation of Sweden as a state. He was a member of the Swedish Royal House of Sverker [on his mother's side], a prominent member of the House of Folkung aka the House of Bjälbo. Birger became the defacto King of Sweden and his line produced several Kings of Sweden and Norway from 1250-1364. He married the sister of King Eric XI of Sweden; she died in 1254 and in 1261 Birger married the widow of King Abel of Denmark, Matilda of Holstein. Birger died on 21 October 1266, at Jälbolung in Västergötland. His grave in at Varnhem Abbey.
Valdemar BIRGERSSON [1239-1302] eldest son of Birger JARL. Valdemar was King of Sweden from 1250-1275, lord of parts of Gothenland until 1278.
Magnus III aka Magnus Ladulås [1240-1290] second eldest son of Birger JARL, was King of Sweden from 1275-1290 after deposing his brother Valdemar Birgersson. Though not independently tested, his son Magnus IV Eriksson of Sweden aka Magnus VII of Norway would belong to the I1 haplogroup by extension from Magnus Ladulås. Died c.1290.
Eric BIRGERSSON, born 1250, Duke of Småland [third son].
Benedict BIRGERSSON, Duke of Finland, born 1254, Bishop of Linköping [fourth son].
and Gregers [Gregory] BIRGERSSON [died January 15, 1276], buried in Minoriterna a monastery in Uppsala. Gregory was a Swedish knight and an illegitimate son of Birger Jarl. He was born out of wedlock by an unknown woman.
It can be assumed all the following members of the House of Bjälbo are Haplogroup-I1, DNA passing father to son:
Valdemar I of Sweden [1239–1302]
Magnus III of Sweden [1240-1290]
Birger I of Sweden [1280-1321]
Valdemar, Duke of Finland [1280s-1318]
Magnus IV of Sweden [1316-1374]
Eric XII of Sweden [1339-1359]
Haakon VI of Sweden & Norway [1340-1380]
Olaf II of Denmark & Norway [1370-1387]
other Famous People with Haplogroup I1 are:
Edmund RICE [b.c.1594 nr.Stanstead Suffolk, England – 3 May 1663 at Marlborough,
predicted Subclade I1-L22 > P109 to be confirmed [from research by William Hartley, September 2013] I-P109>S11056>S14887>S8175+ Branch
British Isles-Norse/Scandinavian] reconstructed YSTR haplotype:
DYS/Alles: DYS19 14 DYS 381i 12 DYS382ii 28 DYS385a 14 DYS385b 14 DYS388 14 DYS390 23 DYS391 10 DYS392 11 DYS393 13 DYS395a 15 DYS395b 15 DYS406s1 9 DYS413a 25 DYS413b 25 DYS425 12 DYS426 11 DYS436 12 DYS437 16 DYS438 10 DYS439 11 DYS441 16 DYS442 12 DYS444 13 DYS445 11 DYS446 13 DYS447 23 DYS448 18
DYS/Alles: DYS449 28 DYS450 8 DYS454 11 DYS455 8 DYS456 14 DYS458 15 DYS459a 8 DYS459b 9 DYS460 10 DYS461 12 DYS462 13 DYS463 21 DYS464a 12 DYS464b 14 DYS464c 15 DYS464d 16
DYS/Alles: DYS472 8 DYS481 25 DYS487 12 DYS490 12 DYS492 12 DYS511 10 DYS520 20 DYS531 11 DYS534 15 DYS537 11 DYS557 15 DYS565 11 DYS568 11 DYS570 20 DYS572 11 DYS576 17 DYS578 8 DYS590 8 DYS594 10 DYS607 14 DYS617 13 DYS635 23 DYS640 11 DYS641 10 CDYa 38 CDYb 39 Y-GATA-A10 15 Y-GATA-H4 11 Y-GGAAT-1B07 11 YCA-IIa 19 YCA-IIb 21
many descendants of Edmund RICE were famous people, including:
Edgar Rice BURROUGHS, [1 September 1875 Chicago Illinois USA - 19 March 1950] author and creator of the Tarzan character
John Calvin COOLIDGE, [4 July 1872 Plymouth Notch, Windsor County, Vermont USA - 5 January 1933] 30th President of the United States
Elias HOWE, [9 July 1819 Spencer, Massachusetts USA - 3 October 1867] inventor of the first practical sewing machine
 Leo [Lev Nikolayevich] Tolstoy, [9 September 1828 Yasnaya Polyana, Tula, Russia - 20 November 1910] Russian writer; 'War and Peace' etc.
Alexander HAMILTON [11 January 1757 Charlestown, Nevis, British West Indies
– 12 July 1804] confirmed by testing several descendants:
predicted Subclade I1-Z140+ A1374+ Branch. The SNP, A1374, registered by William Hartley [from research by William Hartley, September 2013]
Alexander was the first United States Secretary of the Treasury, a Founding
Father, economist, and political philosopher. He was descended from the Scottish
laird Alexander Hamilton of Grange, Ayrshire. On 14 December 1780 when he married
into a wealthy colonial family; m. Elizabeth Schuyler, daughter of General Philip
Schuyler, and thus joined one of the richest military and most political families
in the state of New York [see ancestors below]
The Hamilton's are thought to have been descended from the Norman, Bernard 'The Dane' de Harcourt, a knight to King Robert 1 [the father of William the Conqueror].
Defining markers: DYS447=22, DYS455=8, DYS439=12, DYS389i=13, DYS449=30, DYS607=15, DYS481=26, DYS446=12 [William Hartley]
YDNA test results include:
DYS/Alles: 393=13 390=22 19=14 391=10 385A=13 385B=14 426=11 388=14 439=12 389i=13 392=11 389ii=29 458=15 459a=8 459b=9 455=8 454=11 447=22 437=16 448=20
DYS/Alles: 449=31 464a=12 464b=14 464c=15 464d=15
DYS/Alles: 460=10 GATA-H4=10 YCAIIA=19 YCAIIB=21 456=14 607=15 576=16 570=19 CDYA=35 CDYB=38 442=12 438=10
Alexander HAMILTON I1-Z140+ A1374+ Branch [researched September
2013 William Hartley] Birth: Jan. 11, 1755 Death: Jul. 12, 1804 Founding Father,
Statesman. The thirteen states after the Revolutionary War were weak and still
separate. Alexander Hamilton was the strong voice calling for a strong united
government with a new Constitution and then most instrumental in the formation
and convening of the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia which established
the United States of America. He was born southeast of Florida on Nevis, a small
island making up the group in the Caribbean known as the West Indies. His mother
was unwed and the daughter of a doctor and his father a merchant. Family links:
Spouse: Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton (1757 - 1854)*
Children: [all male-to-male lines should be YDNA Subclade I1-Z140+
 Philip Schuyler Hamilton (1783 - 1801)*[see below]
Angelica Hamilton Knott (1784 - 1857)*
 Alexander Hamilton (1786 - 1875)*[see below]
 James Alexander Hamilton (1788 - 1878)*[see below]
 John Church Hamilton (1792 - 1882)*[see below]
 William Stephen Hamilton (1797 - 1850)*[see below]
Elizabeth Hamilton Holly (1799 - 1859)*
 Phillip Hamilton (1802 - 1884)*[see below]
 Philip Schuyler HAMILTON Birth: Jan. 22, 1783
Albany Albany County New York, USA Death: Nov. 23, 1801 New Jersey, USA Eldest
and favorite son of Alexander Hamilton and his wife, Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton.
Grandson of General Philip Schuyler. Philip was killed in a duel, on almost
exactly the same spot where his father was to be struck by Aaron Burr's bullet
three years later, in Weehawken, New Jersey. Hamilton never recovered from his
son's death and, when he and "Betsey" welcomed their eighth and last child after
Philip's death, they named the little boy Philip, in memory of his elder brother.
Philip is buried in Trinity Churchyard in lower Manhattan, not far from the
graves of his parents and the grave of his celebrated aunt, Angelica Schuyler
Church. Family links: Parents: Alexander Hamilton (1755 - 1804) Elizabeth Schuyler
Hamilton (1757 - 1854) Burial: Trinity Churchyard Manhattan New York County
New York, USA
 Alexander HAMILTON, Jr Birth: May 16, 1786 New York New York County New York, USA Death: Aug. 2, 1875 New York New York County New York, USA son of Alexander Hamilton & Elizabeth Schuyler husband of Eliza P. Knox served in War of 1812 as the General in command of The Old Sandy Fort Burial: Verified with church 25 Jun 2012 Family links: Parents: Alexander Hamilton (1755 - 1804) Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton (1757 - 1854) Spouse: Eliza P. Knox Hamilton (____ - 1871) Burial: Christ Church Episcopal Churchyard New Brunswick Middlesex County New Jersey, USA Plot: #140, S.24. W. 108. 3.
 James Alexander HAMILTON Birth: Apr. 14, 1788 New York New York County New York, USA Death: Sep. 24, 1878 Irvington Westchester County New York, USA son of Alexander & Elizabeth (Schuyler) Hamilton husband of Mary Morris During the War of 1812: Served as Aide de Camp to General Morgan Lewis, US Army Family links: Parents: Alexander Hamilton (1755 - 1804) Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton (1757 - 1854) Spouse: Mary Morris Hamilton (1790 - 1869) Children: Eliza Hamilton Schuyler (1811 - 1863)* Fanny Hamilton Bowdoin (1813 - 1887)* Alexander Hamilton (1816 - 1889)* Angelica Hamilton Blatchford (1819 - 1868)* *Calculated relationship Burial: Sleepy Hollow Cemetery Sleepy Hollow Westchester County New York, USA
 John Church HAMILTON Birth: Aug. 22, 1792 Pennsylvania, USA Death: Jul. 25, 1882 New Jersey, USA son of Alexander Hamilton and Elizabeth Schuyler husband of Maria Eliza Van Den Huevel War of 1812: Aide de Camp of Majgen Harrison, US Army Family links: Parents: Alexander Hamilton (1755 - 1804) Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton (1757 - 1854) Spouse: Maria Eliza Van Den Huevel Hamilton (1795 - ____)* Children: Alexander Hamilton (1815 - 1907)* Schuyler Hamilton (1822 - 1903)* Adelaide Hamilton (1830 - 1915)* Elizabeth Hamilton Cullum (1831 - 1884)* *Calculated relationship Burial: Sleepy Hollow Cemetery Sleepy Hollow Westchester County New York, USA
 William Stephen HAMILTON Birth: Aug. 4, 1797 Death: Aug. 7, 1850 Son of Alexander Hamilton. Was exhumed twice and buried three times. Family links: Parents: Alexander Hamilton (1755 - 1804) Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton (1757 - 1854) Burial: Sacramento City Cemetery Sacramento Sacramento County California, USA
 Phillip HAMILTON Birth: Jun. 1, 1802 New York New York County New York, USA Death: Jul. 9, 1884 Poughkeepsie Dutchess County New York, USA son of Alexander Hamilton and Elizabeth Schuyler husband of Rebecca McLane noted criminal lawyer in New York City as Asst District Attorney, conducted trial on notorious pirate Gibbs Family links: Parents: Alexander Hamilton (1755 - 1804) Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton (1757 - 1854) Spouse: Rebecca Mclane Hamilton (1813 - 1893) Children: Louis Mclane Hamilton (1844 - 1868)* Allan McLane Hamilton (1848 - 1919)* *Calculated relationship Burial: Poughkeepsie Rural Cemetery Poughkeepsie Dutchess County New York, USA Plot: lot 120, section v
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