The HARTLEY Surname - Origins of the Name [an ongoing hartleyfamilyorguk project]
1] Who are the Hartleys ? When did they originate ?
2] Where did the surname 'HARTLEY' come from ? Why the surname, HARTLEY ?
3] Who were some of the earliest HARTLEYs and where did they come from ?
So let's begin by finding out ... Who are the indiginous British and Irish ?
Here's a brief history of the peoples of Britain and Ireland ... scholars, look away, now !
"In my search around the world I have more than once found that oral myths are closer to the genetic conclusions than the often ambiguos scientific evidence of archaelogy" - Professor Bryan Sykes [wiki] from his book 'Saxons, Vikings, and Celts the Genetic Roots of Britain and Ireland'
Professor Sykes' advice, hartleyfamilyorguk has included old historical
accounts [oral myths], as well as other historical, archaeological, and genetic
information, to create a comprehensive study of where the HARTLEYs originated;
the ancient historical accounts ['myths'] are vital in understanding the HARTLEY
surname, it's roots and it's peoples, even if they haven't yet been confirmed
by archaelogical studies and genetic research.
Much evidence shows, that from time to time, relatively small new groups of peoples arrived in Britain and Ireland, from near and far - some nomadic, some who came and returned home and some who settled for good. For thousands of years just after the Last Great Ice Age, Britain and Ireland continued to be populated seasonally by hunter-gatherers, and later by agricultural settlers. They were the ancestors of most people living in Britain and Ireland today, they were the indiginous British and Irish. The reality is far from the old idea, that invading armies of Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings and Normans replaced the original 'British and Irish' settlers. 'Invaders' probably only added 5%-10% of new DNA to the modern British genetic pool, even less in Ireland. Where they had technologies and resources that allowed them to become militarily or economically dominant [like the Romans, Danish Vikings and Normans], new settlers took over positions of power [within royalty and the aristocracy], or chose native leaders who could do the job for them. They added to the British and Irish language, the technology and the culture. However, it does appear that the original British and Irish language and culture survived, including material artifacts, social organisation and mythology, some even survived through to the present day. Evidence also shows that exchange of technology and culture took place through trade. And the indiginous British and Irish also travelled to near and far, some even settled abroad, taking with them British and Irish language and culture. Some returned, bringing back new ideas, new designs, which were adopted throughout Britain and Ireland.
Conclusion: Britain and Ireland experienced continuity, not invasion, widespread destruction and total change.
Before the Last Great Ice Age: archaeology and DNA analysis have shown
that native Europeans had lived in [what is now] Britain and Ireland for well
over 750,000 years, probably as far back as 1.2 million years ago. Over time,
on several occasions, major shifts in climate had covered the area with ice
sheets over a kilometer thick. These glaciers scraped the land bare and removed
much of what went before. During this time, Homo antecessor, Heidelberg Man,
Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons had populated the land. In relatively recent times,
they had all merged or died out, leaving just one, modern Homo Sapiens, in Europe.
As the Last Great Ice Age descended some 50,000 years ago, it is thought by some that native Europeans retreated to warmer climes in Southern Europe and Central Asia, as highlands in Northeren Britain and Ireland and Scandinavia became covered once more in very thick ice and tundra. However, it is clear many of our hunter- gatherer ancestors continued living just south of the maximum extent of the ice covered mountains, in an area we now call 'Doggerland'. The highland landscape was pretty much like the Arctic is today, maybe even less hospitable, making it very difficult for humans and wildlife to survive ... but they did.
18,000 years ago, the sea level was still more than 120m lower than today; there were no islands as we know them today; Britain was joined to Ireland, it was joined to Scandinavia, and it was joined to to the continent of Europe [shown on the map above]. As long ago as 1490, geographers knew the British Isles had been joined to Europe before 'the Flood'; Dominicus Marius Niger: Domenico Mario Negri [fl.c.1490], geographer: "... that in the beginning, when God framed the world, and divided the waters apart from the earth, this [British] Isle was then a parcel of the continent, and joined without any separation of sea to the mainland."
The earth's population, then, totalled no more than about one million people. The population of what is now Southern Britain and Ireland was very small, possibly just a few hundred hunter-gatherers [likely native Europeans, haplogroups G and I [M170]]
between 14 000 years ago and 9 000 years ago: as the Last Great Ice Age was coming to an end, melting ice raised sea levels. Britain separated from Ireland, but was still connected to mainland Europe. Growing numbers of native European nomadic hunter-gatherers [including native Europeans pre-haplogroup I1] travelled seasonally, by land and by sea, following migrating fish and herds of animals, including deer. They built substantial 'seasonal camps' in Britain and Ireland and were the first settlers;
aerial map of N.Europe and the N.Atlantic, showing Doggerland surrounding the British Isles.
c.10,500BP Star Carr records the first round houses. Diet included hunted Deer, Elk, Aurochs, Wild Boar, Beaver, Hare and Badgers. People constructed small boats so that they could travel up rivers and explore the environment and transport people and small quantities of goods.
c.10,500-8,000BP Doggerland [now the North Sea][see Storegga Slides - Tsunamis] The Storegga Slides were a series of underwater landslides, in which a piece of the Norwegian continental shelf slid into the Norwegian Sea. The immense landslips occurred between 10,150BP and 8000BP, and caused three tsunamis, each up to 20 metres [66 feet] high, that swept across Doggerland.
c.7,000BP: the hunter-gatherers were joined by [mostly male] agricultural
settlers from South West Europe and from East Europe and Central Asia including
Samotheans [see later, below]. The vast majority were non-native European male
settlers who brought R1b and R1a male Y-DNA with them and that is the DNA that
is still dominant in Britain and Ireland today; descendents of those early settlers
are also indiginous British and Irish; most present day British and Irish are
descended from them. Some settlers chose native female hunter-gatherers for
mates; together they populated the area. These Europeans and Asians are the
forefathers of the majority of the British and Irish, as well as the Dutch,
Germans and French; hence, most British, Irish, Dutch, Germans and French, today,
are blood-related through common ancestors.
It is estimated that only a thousand or so people populated the whole of Britain and Ireland at that time.
About 6 000 - 7 000 years ago: a large river basin stood between Europe and the 'British Peninsular', connecting major rivers that ran across Britain and Europe. About 6000 years ago, as melting ice continued to raise sea levels, the river basin gradually flooded; sea engulfed the lands once occupied by humans and wildlife [Doggerland, shown on the map] and formed what is now the North Sea and English Channel. Henceforth, Britain was cut off by land from continental Europe and the seasonal migration pattern was broken. Britain became a group of islands. Some hunter-gatherers and wildlife was stranded in Britain, unable to get back to the mainland. Other groups would have adapted, travelling to and fro by boat. Over time, successive waves of new agricultural settlers came to Britain and Ireland from Europe and Asia, bringing with them different cultures and technologies, some of which were adopted. Settlers came from near and far, from the whole of Europe, Turkey and the Middle East, Central Asia, even parts of North and East Africa. Most of the male DNA brought by new settlers were of the same haplogroups as that already held by the British and Irish; mostly R1b, but also R1a and I [M170].
c.6,000BP: One reference to the ancient history of the British Isles: 'Holinshed's Chronicle: published 1578' tells us: the earliest inhabitants of the island which is now called Britain were the Samotheans, ruled over by peoples from the Middle East. Their first king was called Samothes, and he is believed to have been Meshech, the sixth son of Japheth, a son of the Biblical Noah. Samothes was very educated in astronomy, moral values and politics. He founded a sect of philosophers called the Samothei. He wrote Phoenician letters, from which the Greek alphabet was derived. The Samothean kings ruled over more than just the island of Samothea. Their kingdom included a large part of Europe from the Rhine to the Pyrennes, an area known as Gallia [the Gauls]. Samothes is said to be the founder of Celtica; the Celts and Gauls, the same race. The Samotheans introduced a mother language to Europe, Proto-Indo-European.
c.5,200BP: The succession of kings after Samothes were: Magus Sarronius Druiyus [the Druids] Bardus Longho Bardus Junior Lucus Celtes [the Celts]. Magus [the Magi] was very educated, as was his father Samothes. Sarronius [Sarron] founded schools and colleges to encourage people to study and be civilised. He was the founder of a group of philosophers called the Sarronides, who offered sacrifices, believing that they should only be made by people who were skilled in divine mysteries. Druiyus [Druis] was the founder of the Druids. Initially a true religion taught by his predecessors, after Druiyus' death, the Druids became pagan. Bardus was a poet and musician [hence the word 'bard']. He established an order of poets or heralds called 'Bardi', and it was said "they were held in such high esteem that if two armies were engaged in battle, and the Bardi walked among them, the battle would stop until they had gone".
Albion invaded Samothea [In 930, the English King Ćthelstan used the title:
rex et primicerius totius Albionis regni "King and chief of the whole realm
of Albion". Albion was still remembered over 3,000 years later].
Hercules [the Greek] defeated Albion and Bergion, the Celtes continued to rule. Hercules came to Albania [England], arriving at a headland which Ptolomie calls 'Promontorium Herculis' [Hartland Point, North Devon].
[The Egyptians and Babylonians deified their kings, a practice passed on to the Greeks and Romans and to all the pagan world, including the Norse Gods]. Two sons of Mizraim Osiris were: Neptune Marioticus and Hercules Lybicus. [Neptune, the son of Osiris, sailed the seas with his thirty three sons, leaving each of them in a different place to overthrow the kingdoms that already existed and bring the world under their own tyrannical rule]. Two sons of Neptune Marioticus that came to the British Isles were: Albion, who invaded the island of Samothea with an army descended from Cush. And Bergion, who invaded the island to the west of Samothea [Hibernia, now called Ireland].
kings who ruled over parts of the British Isles include: Galates Harbon Lugdus
Beligius Iasius Allobrox Romus Paris Lemanus Olbius Galates II Nannes Remis
Francus Pictus [the Picts].
Finally, Brutus invaded and set up a new succession of kings [see below: Brutus, the Trojan-Greek son of Silvius].
The Britons: from 4,000 - 3,000 years ago, Britannia [Britain] was being
increasingly populated by 'the Britannic' [Britons]. Britannia is said to be
named after Brutus of Troy, the Trojan-Greek son of Silvius. Silvius was descended
from Ascanius, founder of Alba Longa; his father, Aeneas, hero of Troy, and
was a descendant of Japheth the 'fair skinned one', the son of the Biblical
Noah. The Trojans land on a deserted island and discover an abandoned temple
to Diana [see Hertha, the Earth Mother Goddess, later]. After performing
the appropriate ritual, Brutus falls asleep in front of the goddess's statue
and is given a vision of the land where he is destined to settle, an island
in the western ocean [Britannia] inhabited only by a few giants [powerful].
The Britannic were Brython-Celtic and North Germanic speaking [wiki]. By their language and DNA they are thought to have mostly come from Western Europe; they were Gauls [Brittany in France]; Germanic-Celts [Belgae] from France and Belgium, from Germany, Austria and the Alps; Danaan's [Danes] from Denmark and North Germany; and the Brigantes from Spain and Portugal [Atlantic People, sometimes referred to as Celts]. They probably account for 50%-80% of male R1b Y-DNA found in Britain today. Almost all HARTLEYs [tested so far] have haplogroup R1b Y-DNA so are more than likely descended from the Britannic.
The story goes on; Brutus had three sons and three areas of Britannia were named after them; Albania aka Albany [the Far North of Britannia, Brigantia [see below] and Pictland populated by the Picts] named after Albanactus; England named after Locrinus [Laegria: East Anglia, named after Laegrus]; Cambia [Wales] named after Kamber [Cambus]. It is recounted that Albanactus was killed shortly after he began his reign, by Humber, King of the Huns. Humber invaded Albany from Germany and met Albanactus's army in battle, where Humber killed Albanactus. This forced the people of Albany to flee south to Albanactus's brother, Locrinus.
The population of Britannia had by now grown to about 100,000, most of whom were the descendents of the indiginous British and Irish settlers, their language a mix of North Germanic [Scandinavian, later Middle English], Brython-Celtic, Welsh and Irish.
Pytheas of Massilia [4thC BC] was a Greek Geographer and Explorer from the Greek colony, Massilia [modern day Marseille]. He made a voyage of exploration to North Western Europe c.325 BC. He circumnavigated and visited a considerable part of Britannia. An earlier unknown 6thC BC Greek explorer makes brief mention of a visit to "the sacred isle" Ierne [Ireland] located across from Albion [the early name for Britain]. Pytheas [and also Diodorus] reported that Britannia was "cold and subject to frosts, being too much subject to the bear" [suggesting he visited in the early Spring]. "The numerous population of natives live in thatched cottages [Iron-age round houses], store their grain in subterranean caches and bake bread from it. They are of simple manners and are content with plain fare. They are ruled by many Kings and Princes who live in peace with each other. Their troops fight from chariots, as did the Greeks in the Trojan War." Three 'corners' of Britannia are mentioned; Kent, the Orkneys and Cornwall ... "The inhabitants of Cornwall are involved in the manufacture of tin ingots. They mine the ore, smelt it and then work it into pieces the shape of knuckle-bones, after which it is transported to the island of Ictis [probably St Michael's Mount]; during the ebb of the tide the intervening space is left dry [a causeway] and they carry over to the island the tin in abundance in their wagons. Here, the merchants buy the tin from the natives and carry it over to Gaul, and after travelling overland for about thirty days, they finally bring their loads on horses to the mouth of the Rhone for transportation down to the Mediterranean. The inhabitants of Cornwall are civilised in manner and especially hospitable to strangers because of their dealings with foreign merchants."
The Picts: between 3,000 - 2,500 years ago, it is said a massive fleet of long-ships headed by King Rodric and the Picts [painted 'tatooed' people] landed north of the Rivers Clyde and Forth, in Albania [what we now call Scotland]. The kingdom was named Pictavia or Pictland [marked in blue on the map above]. The Picts were from Scythia [an area spanning from north of the Black Sea to the Baltic, the Ukraine, across Russia, almost to China], shown on the male 'Haplogroup R1a' map above.
It is thought Scythians
account for much of the male R1a Y-DNA found today in the British Isles. Scythians
were descended from Magog, the brother of Javan, so both the Scythians and Britons
were descended from Japheth and Noah. It is interesting to note that a 12thC
leader of the Western Hebredes Isles and Isle of Man, Somerled [thought by some
to be a Norse Viking] had R1a DNA. He married the daughter of King Olaf, thought
to be descended from the Kings of Norway. It has been suggested by Professor
Bryan Sykes that some half a million Scots today may be descended from Somerled,
hence they may be descendants of Norsemen. However it is thought Somerled was
not a Norseman but a Scythian-Pict.
Centuries later, the Roman leader of the Britons, Marius, defeated the Picts and took lands south of Hadrian's Wall named Westmorland, now called Cumbria. Marius must have come to an agreement with the Picts as he allowed them to take 300 noble women from the Scots as wives to increase their numbers, something that must have very much annoyed the Scots, as it was likely the intention, to split the Picts and the Scots. Together, the Scots and Picts had formed an alliance and often fought the Britons for land and power so the Romans were out to break that alliance.
Scots: about 2,350 years ago, the Scots [Sciti] came to Hibernia
[Ireland]. The Scots were named after Scotta, an Egyptian Pharoah Nectonebus'
daughter who was 'Queen of the Scots'. She was married to Milidh [the Milesian]
of Spain, a Scythian-Goth descendant, the grandson of Breogán, King of Brigantium
[Corunna] in Spain [see below]. Again, Milesians are thought to be descendants
of Magog, the son of Jepheth, son of Noah. Queen Scotta and Milidh sailed from
Spain and defeated the Tuatha Dé Danann [Peoples of Danaan [Danes from Denmark]
in Ireland, henceforth the people of Ireland were called 'Scots' [marked green
on the map above, also known as Scocia and the people as Gaels]. Scots also
inhabited parts of North Wales.
Eventually the Scots took revenge for the taking of their womenfolk by Picts; they invaded and settled in the West of Pictland, around Dumbarton, then moved inland and overthrew the Picts completely, taking their kingdom; Pictland was then renamed 'Scotland'.
The Scots, but more likely the Tuatha Dé Danann [peoples of Denmark, ie Danes], and the Picts, were noted for their fair hair and bright eyes; we can thereby assume, since the Danes and Picts were descended from Noah and his sons Japeth and Magog, they, too, had fair hair and bright [ie not dark brown] eyes. The Tuatha Dé Danann originated in Achaia on the Greek mainland. Before them, many other tribes had settled in Ireland; the Cessair, [2960-2360BC], descendants of Bith, Noah's son; the Partholón [2500-2000BC],descendants of Magog, from Migdonia, Thracia, an area south of the River Danube, between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, North of Greece; the Nemed [2350-1730BC] from the Caspian Sea, and the Fir Bolg, also from Thracia.
Danaans [Danes] took their name from the Goddess Dana/Donau/Danu, after whom
the River Danube is named. Danu is a Scythian word for 'River', hence the River
Danube [and River Don etc]; she's also the Hindu Goddess Danu, the Goddess of
Water. Danaan's probably account for some of the I1 Y-DNA in Britain today,
though most I1 DNA probably came from native European Norsemen [from modern-day
southern Norway, Sweden and Finland], Angles from the Western Baltic, and Normans
who themselves could trace their roots back to Norsemen [see Haplogroup I chart
The Danaan's King was Dagda, the father of the Goddess 'Brigit' who is also called the Goddess 'Brigantia' of the Brigantes [see below]. The Goddess Danu is the same Roman Goddess 'Diana' [Diana is likely named after Danu], the Goddess Nerthus, she's also the Greek Goddess 'Artemis', the Germanic Goddess 'Hertha'; they are all the Earth Goddess, Goddess of Hunting, always depicted with a HART [a Stag] [see HARTLEY-HERTHA connection on the next page, Page 2]
King Dagda is the same person as the Hindu 'Daksha', a Creator God, the son of Brahma, and the same as the Roman God, Silvanus.
Goths and Dacians arrived from the West of Scythia, from the Carpathian mountains,
west of the Black Sea, the lower Danube, the Balkans and the island of Sardinia,
some of whom brought male I1[b] Y-DNA [shown in dark blue on the 'Haplogroup
I' map above]
Areas of Northern and Eastern England and Scotland and parts of Wales and Ireland were gradually populated by more and more Norse and Germanic peoples [early Vikings, Danes, Fresians and Saxons] from present-day Scandinavia, Holland and North Germany. They brought more native European male I1 Y-DNA, again noted for fair hair and bright eyes [also shown in dark blue on the 'Haplogroup I' map above]. The Norse and Germanic peoples were to come in much greater numbers many centuries later [see below].
Atlantic peoples came in large numbers from present-day France, Spain, Portugal and Italy populated the South and West of England, Wales and Ireland. They, like the Britons, account for male R1b Y-DNA commonly found in Britain and Ireland, Germany and France [shown in dark red on the 'Haplogroup R1b' map above]. Atlantic people included peoples from Africa and the Middle East, which could account for male E1b1b Y-DNA found significantly in Ireland. Or some of the E1b1b Y-DNA could have come from Egyptian males who travelled with Queen Scotta.
population of Britain was probably 250,000 or so by 2,000BC
Homeland of the Northern HARTLEYs today is Lancashire and Yorkshire, historically part of Northern Britain controlled by the Brigantes:
Brigantes: The tribe who controlled the largest kingdom known as Brigantia was the Brigantes. It is not certain when they arrived, but it was likely 4,000 - 3,000 years ago. They took their name from Breogán, King of Brigantium [Corunna] in Spain so were Atlantic People from Spain and Portugal, hence like the Milesians in Ireland, they are thought to be Scythian-Goths, descendants of Magog, the son of Jepheth, son of Noah.. The Brigantes kingdom covered what is now Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cumbria, Durham, Northumberland, South East Scotland, the North Midlands and parts of the south of Ireland around Wexford, Kilkenny and Waterford. Those areas happen to be where northern HARTLEYs most commonly originate. Brigantes meant 'the high, elevated ones, the highlanders', which could have been derived, as Greek Milesians, from their higher social status, above other tribes; or it could have been derived from the hilly Pennines and Lake District where they settled; and/or it could have been derived from their construction of hill top forts [see below]. During Roman times the Brigantes was the most militant tribe in Britannia, made up of very well trained, fierce warriors.
Brigantes were subdivided into:
Gabrantovices of coastal North Yorkshire, the Goat fighters
Latenses of the Adel, Leeds area [Burgodunum]
Setantii in coastal Lancashire around Flyde-Fleetwood [Portus Setantiorum Port of the Setantii]
Corionototae from the south side of Hadrian's Wall around Corbridge [Coria]
Lopocares from the south side of Hadrian's Wall around Durham [Vinovium], Northumberland, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Gateshead, North and South Tyneside and Sunderland.
Textoverdi from the south side of Hadrian's Wall in the upper valley of the River Tyne [Vindolanda Chesterholm]
also, the independant tribe of
Carvetii of North Cumbria, from the Carlisle/Eden Valley area [Luguvalium Carvetiorum] [Carvetii]. The Deer/Stag People, their principal deity seems to have been the God of War, Belatucadrus [the Roman God, Mars; the Greek God, Ares], although the Roman name for Carlisle, Luguvalium Carvetiorum, seems to come from 'Lugus' who was the Roman God 'Mercury', the Messenger, God of Trade, Profit and Commerce; the Greek God 'Hermes', the Patron of Boundaries and of the Travelers who cross them, of Shepherds and Cowherds, of Thieves and Road Travelers, of Orators and Wit, of Literature and Poets, of Athletics, of Weights and Measures, of Invention, of General Commerce, and of the Cunning of Thieves and Liars.
NB: Perhaps Carvetii should have the prefix 'Cerv' meaning 'deer', making it Cervetii ?
From historical records it is uncertain where the Carvetii Tribe originated before the Bronze and Iron Ages, though this may be determined at some point by DNA testing. If they were deer herdsmen, they may have been Norsemen who originated in Scandinavia. They may also have been painted 'tatooed' people, perhaps fair haired 'Albani', closely associated with the Picts, so may have come from Scythia. The consort of Queen Cartimandua of the Brigantes, Ventutius, is thought to have been Carvetian [see below].
Parisii tribe: the Parisii were bordered by the Brigantes in the rest of the Yorkshire area, just north of the River Humber. [see map above] a culturally distinct group of people who inhabited the area at the time. Parallels exist with continental burial rites in Gaul [Paris, France]. The Arras culture indicates strong cultural and economic links between the two regions during the period.
ERTHA, the Germanic Earth Goddess Tacitus wrote: "Nothing remarkable occurs in any of these tribes [of Northern Germany], except that they unite in the worship of Ertha [HERTHA], or Mother Earth. They believe that she interposes in the affairs of men, and visits the different nations in her chariot*. On an island of the ocean stands a sacred and unviolated grove, in which is a consecrated chariot, covered with a veil, which the priest alone is permitted to touch. He becomes conscious of the entrance of the goddess into this secret recess; and with profound veneration attends the vehicle, which is drawn by yoked cows. At this season all is joy; and every place which the goddess deigns to visit is a scene of festivity. No wars are undertaken; arms are untouched; and every hostile weapon is shut up. At this time, only peace abroad and at home are known. At length the same priest conducts the goddess, now weary of mortal intercourse, back to her temple. The chariot, with its curtain, and, if we may believe it, the goddess herself, then undergo ablution in a secret lake. This ritual is performed by slaves, whom the same lake instantly swallows up. Hence arises a mysterious horror and a pious ignorance of these events, which are beheld only by those who are about to perish
chariot* In Britain, chariot burials are characteristic of, and almost confined to, the Iron Age Arras culture associated with the Parisii tribe. [see below]
HERTHA descended from the Throne of Odin and rode there in a chariot, a carriage covered with a mysterious veil and drawn by two cows. Wherever she condescends to come and accept the hospitality of humans, there are days of rejoicing and weddings, no war is fought, no weapon reached for, every iron object is locked away. Only peace and calm are then known and desired. This lasts until the Goddess has sojourned long enough among humans and the priest leads her back again into her sanctuary. Only her consecrated priest was allowed to accompany her. Slaves were also brought along to lead the draft animals and to wash the chariot, but they were drowned in the lake immediately upon completing their task, because any unconsecrated person who caught sight of the Goddess would have to die. For this reason nothing more is known about the worship of this Goddess.
Many chariots have been discovered, buried, across Britain and across the world dating from 2000BC [Bronze Age]. In England, chariot burials are characteristic of, and almost confined to, the Iron Age Arras culture associated with the Parisii tribe. Finds of such burials are rare.The Wetwang chariot burial of ca. 300 BC is an exception in that a woman was interred with the chariot, possibly depicting the Earth Goddess, Hertha. Twenty one British sites are known, spanning approximately four centuries, virtually all in the East Riding of Yorkshire. The Ferrybridge and Newbridge chariots are unusual in Britain as they are the only ones to be buried intact. The burial custom seems to have disappeared with the Roman occupation of Britain..
The name Brigantes was linked to the Goddess Brigantia who was the Roman Goddess Minerva, the daughter of Jupiter, the virgin goddess of warriors, poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts, and the inventor of music. She is often depicted with an owl, her sacred creature and, through this connection, a symbol of wisdom; she was also the Greek Goddess Athena, the daughter of Zeus, the virgin goddess of wisdom, peace, warfare, strategy, handicrafts and reason, shrewd companion of heroes and the goddess of heroic endeavour. Brigantia appears attended by an owl, the sign of Wisdom; as the Goddess of Wisdom, Brigantia may have links to the Greek Milesians as they were Philosophers, Writers, Architects and Scientists.
Certainly the Brigantes are linked to other tribes from Central Southern Europe, which is where they are thought to have originated before they came to Briton after the Great Ice Age. There are several Briga- prefixed names scattered throughout Europe, at:
Hispaniae also known as 'Brigantinus Portus', the ancient name of the seaport
of Corunna in north-western Spain. A major settlement of the northern Gallaeci
tribe, was situated in the conventus Lucensis, part of the province of Gallia
Tarraconensis. This seaport was the western terminus of a major trade route
in tin, gold, lead and silver. Brigantium
took it's name from Breogán, King of Brigantium [Corruna] in Spain, thought
to be a descendant Scythian-Goths and of Magog, the son of Jepheth, son of Noah.
Brigantes [as mentioned, the major tribe of Northern Briton] Tribal capital Aldborough 'Isurium Brigantum' in North Yorkshire.
Brigantii People of Central Raetia whose tribal capital named Brigantium was situated on the south-east shore of the 'Brigantinus Lacus', a lake in Raetia in the Alps, now known as Lake Constance, through which the River Rhine flows. Another of their major towns was Cambodunum.
Brigantium Raetiae Tribal capital of the Brigantii situated on the eastern shores of Brigantinus Lacus in Central Raetia. Now known as Bregentz on Lake Constance in the Austrian Tyrol.
Brianza is a geographical area at the foot of the Alps, in north-western Lombardy, northern Italy. Brianza [Latin: Brigantia] derives from the Brigantes, or Brigantii, an ancient tribe who existed there two thousand years ago.
Brigantio [Brianco, Latin Brigantium] Roman settlement in the Cottian Alps in the Hautes-Alpes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
the 1st Century BC: tens of thousands of Romans 'invaded' Britain, arriving
with peoples from as far afield as Italy and the Mediterranean, Central and
Eastern Europe and Africa.They seem to have brought with them some basis of
written law and order and there continued a period of relative peace. By the
1stC, peoples of Britain and Ireland were already of very mixed 'cosmopolitan'
origins, as they still are today. Britain was called 'Britannia' by the Romans,
and it is thought it was already so named before the Romans arrived.
The Romans had launched a major military campaign to conquer the areas that pirates, Vikings, were using as bases. The Vikings were fiercer than any of the Mediteranean pirates and their home bases were far to the north in Norway and Denmark. No Roman army or fleet had ever attempted to operate that far north. The Romans did not like the north European winters and generally did not try to occupy lands too far north. We'll never know how the Romans would have dealt with Vikings in their Scandinavian homelands, but it's an interesting issue to speculate about.
During early Roman times, the ruling Queen of the Brigantes was Cartimandua
[c.43-70AD] [the style of dress depicted in the picture is taken
from the film 'King Arthur '], who was married to her consort,
Venutius* [who was an anti-Roman warlord, see above]. Cartimandua was a 'living
deity', the Goddess Brigantia, the High Goddess.
After Ventutius sided with the Carvetii tribe [of which he is thought to have been a member] and with northern Caledonian tribes, against the Romans, Cartimandua divorced him in favour of her lover, her shield bearer, Vellocatus [who was pro-Roman] [c.69AD]. Cartimandua supported the Romans in Brigantia but was eventually overthrown by Venutius, who had gathered great support from the people, partly due to Cartimandua's infidelity. This led to warfare between the Romans and Brigantes over many decades and is thought to have been the main reason why Hadrian's Wall and the Antonine Wall were built, namely, to prevent the Brigantes from uniting with Picts, Scots and Norsemen to create a civil war against the Romans. Eventually the Brigantes were conquered and Brigantia came under Roman rule [named 'Britannia Secunda'].
The Brigantes had constructed many Bronze and Iron Age fortified towns and hill top forts* which the Romans used as strongholds, namely at Stanwick, Whitley [Epiacum] and Corbridge [Coria] in Northumberland; Carlisle [Luguvalium Carvetiorum] in Cumbria; Binchester [Vinovium] in Durham; York [Eboracum], Catterick [Caturactonium], Tadcaster [Calcaria], Aldborough [Isurium Brigantum] [the Brigantes capital] and Elslack [Olicana] in North Yorkshire; Slack [Cambodunum] in West Yorkshire; Castleshaw [Rigodunum] Manchester, Ribchester [Bremetenacum Veteranorum] and Lonsdale [Calatum] in Lancashire; [Wincobank, Carl Wark, Templebrough and Scholes Coppice] Sheffield in South Yorkshire.
far, we have discovered that the British Isles and Ireland were re-populated
after the Great Ice Age by peoples, mostly from Europe, some from beyond; they
were the indiginous British and Irish. The majority were of R1b, the rest mostly
of R1a and I1 male DNA haplogroups.
The vast majority of people in present day Britain and Ireland are descended from just a few thousand early settlers.
Britons were made up of many peoples; Dutch; Gauls; Germanic-Celts [Belgae] from France, Belgium,Germany, Austria and the Alps; Brigantes [from Spain and Portugal]; Danaan's [Danes]; Norsemen from Scandinavia; Scythians [Picts and Scots]; Goths; Dacians; Trojan-Greeks; Romans and many more. Today, most 'British and Irish' are descended from these original visitors and settlers, relatively few are descended from more recent immigrants.
Carvetii and Danaan Tribes were likely closely connected with the Germanic Earth Goddess HERTHA, the Goddess of Hunting, also known as the Roman Diana, the Greek Artemis. Religion associated with HERTHA would have commonly been in use during the Bronze and Iron Age across Europe and across the world.
hartleyfamilyorguk believes the name HERTHA is the origin of the family of surnames beginning with 'HART-', a name that originated in Germanic countries. from the Dutch: HERT; Norwegian and Swedish: HJORT; Old English: HEOROT
Late-4th Century. Roman Britannia was one of the more thinly populated and distant Roman provinces. Less than a million Britons were 'Romanized' over three centuries; Britons still spoke Brython, mixed with Latin. The last Roman legion left in the early 5th century, withdrawn back to Italy to defend Rome against a major invasion. The authority of the Romans in Britannia had deminished. Britannia continued to be raided by the Picts and Scots from Scotland and Ireland. However, although some technology and farming methods changed, British and Irish culture survived and continued.
It is said the Anglo-Saxons came from Germania; they comprised: Jutes, Angles,
Frisians, Rugians [Rugii], Saxons, Huns and Boructuari [see next map below].
Having depended on professional Roman soldiers for centuries, the Britons were
unable to deal with raids carried out by the Picts and Scots. It is said the
King of the Britons, Wurtgern, called for help from the Germans and Danes, a
big mistake on the part of the Britons. Help came from North West Germany and
Denmark, areas still known today as Jutland, Friesland and Saxony; the Angles
came from 'the angle between the two', also known as Angeln, an area between
Schleswig, Kappeln and Flensburg.
The story goes, the Germanic peoples and Danes led by Hengest and Horsa landed at Ebbsfleet on the Isle of Thanet, Kent; they were so impressed by what they found, they went back for their families and reinforcements. They came back to 'capture' Britannia and rename the country 'Angleland' or England. The Germans and Danes are said to have driven many Britons into Cornwall, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, and Brittany in France. However achaeological evidence proves otherwise; most Britons were 'absorbed', to produce 'The English', speaking a German dialect that evolved into modern English. The Britons were not 'captured'; their language, technologies and culture survived and continued.
click on animated Map of Britain 450AD to 700AD showing changes in what is referred to as 'Anglo Saxon Britain'.
Historic text from Adam of Bremen disputes the idea that it was Saxons who came to England; quite the reverse in fact, Saxons [Saxones] are said to have been Angles who came from England and settled in Hadeln near Cuxhaven, Lower Saxony, near the mouth of the River Elbe. Certainly, people living there spoke the same language as the Britons. South of the Saxons were the Franks [West Germanic]. To the north of Saxony were Northmen [Norse Scandinavians]; east were Abodrites [West Slavs]; west were Frisians, tall, big-boned and light-haired Germanic people [Netherlands Germany and Denmark]. Saxons were made up of nobles, freemen, freedmen and bondsmen. Their early missionary church leaders were the Angles; Winfrid [aka Boniface] b.680 in Wessex and Willehad b.745 in Northumbria, which indicates Saxons were in fact Angles [English].
Adam of Bremen names the Suevi [Suebi] as the original Saxon settlers. They lived in an area between the Rhine and the Elbe, their neighbours being Druids [Gauls], Bardi [Italians], Sicambri [Germanic Celts], Huns [Central Asians], Vandals [East Germanic], Sarmatians [West Scythians], Lombards [Germanic Scandinavians], Heruli [Scandinavians], Dacians [West Scythians], Marcomanni [Central Europe], Goths [Scandinavian East Germanic], Northmen [Norse] and Slavs [East Germanic Asians]. All these tribes later overran much of Europe and Africa.
5thC European Tribes
The Germanic peoples and Danes were pagans; one of their Godesses was NERTHUS or NERTHA, also known as HERTHUM or HERTHA, the Mother Earth Goddess of Hunting [whom we shall meet later].
The Jutes, Angles, Frisians and Old Saxons seem to have established several Kingdoms in England, based on their main tribes; the Anglii [the Angles] in East Anglia, Middle Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria; the Reudigni [from Randsfjord]; the Aviones [islanders from Öland]; the Varini [the Wernes, the 'defenders']; the Eudoses [Jutes, 'giants', thought to have been Goths] in Kent, the Isle of Wight and Wessex; the Suarini [from Schwerin]; and the Nuitonesand. The 'Old Saxons' settled in Essex, Sussex and Wessex. They were ruled by 'Danelaw'. There was peace across the land, but disputes arose, and they found it difficult to secure the whole of England. Viking ships occasionally came, raiding first, trading instead if the locals were too well armed.
the late-7th century: Viking ships are said to have come 'in force', though
a massive invasion, accompanied by mass destruction and deaths is not found
in archaeology. It is said the Norsemen from Scandinavia 'drove' the Britons
into North East Britain, 'capturing' the East, South and Midlands by the 8th
century; it is more likely the 'driving and capturing' refers to Britons adding
some new Norse technology and culture to their own, rather than replacing or
destroying their own. Their is no evidence they were murdered en-masse or geographically
displaced. There is no DNA evidence of large numbers of males bringing native
European I1 Y-DNA. As with any new culture [even today] many Britons and Irish
didn't want the Viking culture, but most appear to have accepted it [and the
Vikings that brought it]. Vikings settled in three main areas; the Normandy
region of France, Eastern England, and Eastern Ireland. The Irish settlements
had no impact on later European history, but the English, and particularly the
French ones, did [see Normans, later].
The late-4thC to 8thC was a period when Europe was 're-organizing' after the demise of Roman rule. While Charlemagne controlled most of France and Germany, he did not have enough troops available to deal with the Vikings. It's doubtful if the Romans would have been able to deal with the Vikings, either; the Romans occasionally had serious problems with large scale piracy from Vikings [and others] in the Mediteranean.
word "Viking" refers to an occupation, that is slipping up little streams and
creeks --viks-- to plunder unsuspecting villages. The people commonly called
Vikings were the Norse, a Scandinavian sea faring people from Norway, Denmark,
Sweden and Finland.
The same population pressures that caused the Viking tribes to leave Scandinavia several centuries before the Romans, continued. In the meantime, the Scandinavians perfected their ship building technology and produced a light, swift sailing ship that could also use oars to good effect. This, the Viking long ship, was originally intended for trade. The Vikings were, basically, traders. But they were also fierce warriors and soon noted that many of the places they came upon in Europe were wealthy, and undefended. What eventually stopped the Viking raids, later in the early 10th century, was the unification of Norway, and the earlier establishment of Viking settlements in the lands that they had previously just plundered during the warm weather.
The Sea Stallion from Glendalough - a Danish reconstruction of a war ship from
the Viking Age. AD 793 heralded the start of many years of plundering attacks
in England. This attack has also traditionally been nominated as the start of
the Viking Age because from here is the oldest precise written information about
a plundering expedition [in The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle]. It was also around AD
800 that the aggressive Viking expeditions and the expansion, which are so characteristic
of Viking times, took off in Western Europe. For the next 300 years, Scandinavian
Vikings formed a large part of English history - as plunderers, merchants, mercenaries,
conquerors, settlers and kings. In England, the Vikings’ influence was both
direct and indirect. Indirect, because many of the fortifications that the Anglo-Saxons
had constructed or rebuilt in previously Roman towns as a defence against the
Vikings, later developed into towns. The Vikings themselves conquered already
established centres of power. Many places already had a church, a chieftain’s
farmstead and were fortified, but the arrival of the conquerors resulted in
increased turnover and gave several places a push in the direction of proper
urban development with commerce, local administration, defence and the Church.
The best known of these are the five castles: Lincoln, Nottingham, Leicester,
Derby and Stamford, from where the Vikings controlled parts of Central England.
In some places, actual urban formation occurred later, when the English took
over power, but excavations in towns such as York and Lincoln have revealed
that many important urban structures were established while the Vikings were
in residence. Numerous place names in Northeastern England today bear witness
to the former presence of the Vikings.
During the 10th century: one King, a German-Englishman named Alfred the Great [reigned 871-899] united most of England. He had a great friendship with Saxon Germans and their Royal Families were integrated.
While some Vikings were establishing themselves in Britain and Ireland, another group did the same in the coastal region of France, around the mouth of the river Seine. In effect, the Vikings in this region allowed themselves to be bought off by the King of France. Beginning in 896 they had sailed up the Seine and laid siege to Paris several times and were constantly expanding the area they pillaged. The French kings, even Charlemagne, were unable to stop the plundering. When the French noted the increasing number of Viking settlements along the coast, they feared the worst. But the Vikings were tiring of raids. French defenses were becoming more effective and Viking losses were increasing. So a deal was struck in 912. The French would recognize the Vikings possession of the land they had already settled [plus a bit more] and make the Viking leader, Rollo, a French nobleman. In return, the Viking duke would convert to Christianity, acknowledge the French king as his overlord and, protect France against 'wilder' Viking pirates. Thus was born Normandy, and the Normans.
So far we have discovered the North of England, where most northern HARTLEYs originated, was once home of the Brigantes and Carvetii, Bronze Age and Iron Age tribes thought to be descended from Scythian-Goths, descendants of Magog [Javan's brother], also the son of Jepheth, son of Noah.
HARTLEYs in the North of Britain have been linked to, even descended from, the
Carvetii and Danaan Tribes ?
Were the Carvetii, themselves, Danaan's [Danes] ?
'The Deer/Stag People' of Cumbria [the Carvetii] were probably Danaans [Danes]. It is very likely their Earth Goddess was 'Dana/Donau/Danu', the Goddess of Hunting, the same Goddess as the Roman 'Diana', the pagan Nerthus, the Greek 'Artemis', the Germanic 'Hertha', always depicted with a HART, a 'Stag' and a bow and quiver. And since the Danaans were Scythians, the Carvetii would also have been Scythians. Hence, like the Scythian Picts, they were probably 'Painted People'.
believes there are likely close links between the Carvetii, 'The Deer/Stag People'
of Cumbria, and the Jutes [Anglo-Saxons] who settled in the South of England,
Kent and Hampshire, where the name HARTLEY appears to have been first used for
place names. They probably had a common culture, a common mythology, maybe even
a common ancestry, from North Germany and Denmark [Jutland]. Their Common mythology
included the Earth Goddess HERTHA, Goddess of Hunting.
Hence HARTLEYs in the south of England, in the North of England and in the south of Ireland, and all HART- surnames across Europe, are all united; they all have a surname derived from the Germanic Mother Goddess HERTHA.
The use of HART- in the surname HARTLEY and other surnames, may have been 'introduced' during Saxon times, but it came from pre-history, passed down through generations over thousands of years, from people who worshipped Hertha.
Just imagine, amongst the thousand or so original inhabitants of post-glacial Britain and Ireland, there were HARTLEYs !
Harts and Stags depicted in Germanic culture and mythology:
a Royal Scepter found at the Sutton Hoo burial site in England features a depiction
of an upright, antlered Stag.
In the Old English language poem Beowulf, much of the first portion of the story focuses on events surrounding a great Mead Hall called HEOROT, meaning "Hall of the Hart [see The HARTLEY Name Page  that follows].
Valhalla: Various creatures live around Valhalla, such as the Stag, Eikţyrnir. So much moisture drips from his horns that it falls down to the well ... "Eikthyrnir the Hart is called, that stands o’er Odin’s Hall, and bits from Lćrad’s branches; from his horns fall drops into Hvergelmir, whence all waters rise"
A 10th century Arab Muslim writer named Ahmad ibn Fadlan produced a description of a funeral of a Scandinavian, probably Swedish, chieftain who was on an expedition on the eastern route. The account is a unique source on the ceremonies surrounding the Viking funeral, of a chieftain. The dead chieftain was put in a temporary grave which was covered for ten days until they had sewn new clothes for him. One of his thrall women volunteered to join him in the afterlife and she was guarded day and night, being given a great amount of intoxicating drinks while she sang happily. When the time had arrived for cremation, they pulled his longship ashore and put it on a platform of wood, and they made a bed for the dead chieftain on the ship. Thereafter, an old woman referred to as the "Angel of Death" put cushions on the bed. She was responsible for the ritual. Then they disinterred the chieftain and gave him new clothes. In his grave, he received intoxicating drinks, fruits and a stringed instrument. The chieftain was put into his bed with all his weapons and grave offerings around him. Then they had two horses run themselves sweaty, cut them to pieces, and threw the meat into the ship. Finally, they sacrificed a hen and a cock. Meanwhile, the thrall girl went from one tent to the other and had sexual intercourse with the men. Every man told her "tell your master that I did this because of my love to him". While in the afternoon, they moved the thrall girl to something that looked like a door frame, where she was lifted on the palms of the men three times. Every time, the girl told of what she saw. The first time, she saw her father and mother, the second time, she saw all her relatives, and the third time she saw her master in the afterworld. There, it was green and beautiful and together with him, she saw men and young boys. She saw that her master beckoned for her. By using intoxicating drinks, they thought to put the thrall girl in an ecstatic trance that made her psychic and through the symbolic action with the door frame, she would then see into the realm of the dead. The same ritual also appears in the Icelandic short story Völsa ţáttr where two pagan Norwegian men lift the lady of the household over a door frame to help her look into the otherworld. Thereafter, the thrall girl was taken away to the ship. She removed her bracelets and gave them to the old woman. Thereafter she removed her finger rings and gave them to the old woman's daughters, who had guarded her. Then they took her aboard the ship, but they did not allow her to enter the tent where the dead chieftain lay. The girl received several vessels of intoxicating drinks and she sang and bid her friends farewell. Then the girl was pulled into the tent and the men started to beat on the shields so her screams could not be heard. Six men entered into the tent to have intercourse with the girl, after which they put her onto her master's bed. Two men grabbed her hands, and two men her wrists. The angel of death put a rope around her neck and while two men pulled the rope, the old woman stabbed the girl between her ribs with a knife. Thereafter, the relatives of the dead chieftain arrived with a burning torch and set the ship aflame. It is said that the fire facilitates the voyage to the realm of the dead, but unfortunately, the account does not tell to which realm the deceased was to go. Afterwards, a round barrow was built over the ashes and in the centre of the mound they erected a staff of birch wood, where they carved the names of the dead chieftain and his king. Then they departed in their ships.
Gundestrup Cauldron found in Jutland, Denmark; thought to be made in Thracia, it shows a male or female Stag horned figure in a seated position. In the right hand, the person is holding a torc; with the left hand, he/she grips a horned serpent by the head. To the left is a Stag with the identical antlers. The figure could represent a noble Stag horned male, the "Lord of the Hunt" who occasionally represents Mercury.
Pottery mask found at a Temple at Catterick Fort, North Yorkshire. The 'horns' have horizontal holes, possibly to allow pins to secure real Stag antlers in place [as depicted on the Gundestrup Cauldron] for a God or Goddess of Hunting or Lord of the Hunt Ceremony.
about 9,500 years old From Star Carr, Vale of Pickering, North Yorkshire. Likely a head-dress; the holes would have been used to tie it to the head with a leather thong. It could have been worn by hunters as a disguise but it is more likely that it was part of a costume worn on special occasions, perhaps during religious ceremonies. [to worship HERTHA, the Earth Goddess ?].
See Wild Hunt led by the Horned God or Goddess of the Hunt, prevalent across Northern, Western and Central Europe. The Germanic Harii, those that have died in battle and are brought to Valhalla by valkyries, painted themselves black to attack their enemies in the darkness. The Heruli, nomadic, ecstatic wolf-warriors, dedicated themselves to Wodan. In Danish tradition the hunted is a female troll, old elf named Slattenpat, which literally means "Wobbly-boob". The ugly-looking Slattenpat runs away putting her long hanging breasts over her shoulders in order to run faster. Eventually she is caught up by the wild hunt and killed by the leader.
the annual Abbots Bromley, Staffordshire Horn Dance still uses 11thC reindeer horns. This Germanic foresters' dance certainly took place in Anglo-Saxon and Viking times and probably dates back to the Nordic Stone Age in Scandinavia and the Baltic Region.
and in Scythian Cuture:
the Scythians had some reverence for the Stag, which is one of the most common motifs in their artwork, especially at funeral sites. The swift animal was believed to speed the spirits of the dead on their way, which perhaps explains the curious antlered headdresses found on horses buried by the Pazyryk, an Iron Age archaeological culture [c.6thC - 3rdC BC] identified by excavated artifacts and mummified humans found in the Siberian permafrost in the Altay Mountains. The mummies are buried in long barrows similar to the tomb mounds of western Scythian culture in modern Ukraine. The type site are the Pazyryk burials of the Ukok Plateau. Many artifacts have been found at this location, including the Ice Princess, indicating a flourishing culture at this location that benefited from the many trade routes and caravans of merchants passing through the area.
So where did the surname come from [geographically] ? And why the surname HARTLEY ?
Continued on Page 2:
1] Who are the Hartleys ? When did they originate ?
2] Where did the surname 'HARTLEY' come from ? Why the surname, HARTLEY ?
3] Who were some of the earliest HARTLEYs and where did they come from ?
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